celebrate our Anniversary Issues Cooking Class, we selected
the ideal class to welcome in the new fall season; A Toast to
Roasts . As the weather gets cooler and our appetites heartier,
nothing could be more satisfying than a beef or pork roast cooked
to perfection! Now is the time to warm up your kitchen and fill
your home with savory, mouth-watering aromas that will have your
entire family waiting in anxious anticipation for those two special
words; "Dinners ready"!
with dry or moist heat
which method to cook a roast should be based on the quality and
type of the meat. Tender cuts of meat can be dry-roasted. Dry
roasting is a method of cooking meat in the oven without liquid
at high or low temperatures. For dry roasting, always choose the
best grades of meat possible. The cut of meat should be well-marbled
and hold a nice shape. Prime cuts of meat come from the back,
rib, sirloin and hindquarters.
cuts of meat should be moist-cooked, or cooked with liquid. Moist-cooked
methods are pot-roasting, stewing or braising. Moist-cooking at
low heat and for a longer cooking time will break down collagen,
making an otherwise tough piece of meat very tender.
roasting the meat, whether prime or an inexpensive cut, it should
be trimmed of excess fat and any sinewy membrane. A thin layer
of fat can be left on the roast so it will baste as it cooks.
can be purchased boneless or with the bone in. Bone-in roasts
stay moister but require a longer cooking time.
can be cooked at high, medium or low heat. The temperature should
be matched to the cut or meat you are going to cook. High-heat
roasting (400 degrees F or higher) will result in a roast with
a crispy browned crust and is only appropriate for smaller cuts
of meat, under 6" in diameter. Roasting at high-heat requires
a shorter cooking time and is suitable for prime beef, lamb or
veal. Always use a meat thermometer to test for doneness.
roasting is a method in which you sear the roast in a hot oven
(425 to 500 degrees F) and then reduce the heat to low (250 degrees
F) for the remainder of the cooking time. The high-heat at the
beginning will brown the crust and the low-heat will keep the
meat moist and allow it to become tender. Low-heat roasting is
suitable for leaner cuts of meat and cuts from the shoulder and
roasting (325 to 350 degrees F) is most suitable for larger cuts
such as leg of lamb or pork shoulder.
roasts should be placed on the lower third rack of the oven and
smaller roasts should be placed on the center rack. The goal is
to place the top of the roast as close to the upper-middle part
of the oven as possible.
Roasts, Braising and Browning
is a method of cooking with a small amount of water in a covered
pot or pan. A pot roast is a braise made with a 3-5 pound piece
of meat. The first step in braising is to brown the meat in fat.
Fats will enhance the flavor and ensure that the meat will brown
evenly. Fats can be oils, butter or rendered fat from bacon or
the meat is an important step that will provide the underlying
flavor of the finished product. Although most professional cooks
no longer subscribe to the theory that searing seals in meat juices,
browning does give meat a rich flavor. Proper browning should
be done in a hot pan, hot enough to sizzle and cook, but not so
hot that it will burn the meat. The meat should be dry when added
to the pan. If you are browning meat and vegetables, they should
be browned separately and in small enough batches so that the
food is not crowded in the pan. Browning takes time; a large pot
roast will take about 15 to 20 minutes to brown.
the meat has been browned, it is time to add liquid. A variety
of liquids can be used and all will enhance and add different
flavors to the roast. Common choices are gf beef stock, wine,
juice from canned tomatoes or any combination of liquids. As soon
as the liquid has been added, scrape up the browned bits on the
bottom of the pan. The browned bits carry the flavor and will
blend with the liquid.
final, but no less important step of preparing the perfect pot
roast, is to develop the texture of the sauce or liquid. Some
of the thickening will happen naturally as the collagen cooks
and breaks down. The melted collagen will add body and substenance
to the sauce. In addition, you can add gf flour to thicken the
sauce. The meat can be coated with gf flour before browning or
just before the roast is done with a mixture of butter and gf
flour (start with a small and equal amount of butter and gf flour:
1 Tablespoon each) added to the liquid. If you prefer the sauce
without flour, you can remove the meat and cook the sauce down
until it reduces and thickens.
instant-read meat thermometer is necessary to determine the doneness
of your roast. Most recipes will give an approximation of cooking
time, but a meat thermometer is the only way to accurately gage
the internal temperature of a roast due to the many variables
involved in the process; the accuracy of the oven, the shape and
thickness of the meat, fat and bone content and the temperature
of the meat before going into the oven. To check the meats
temperature, insert the thermometer into the thickest part of
the meat away from the bone or fat. Check the temperature towards
the end of the cooking time. When the temperature is within 15
degrees of your desired temperature, check it every 10 minutes
as the temperature will rise quickly from that point. All roasts
should rest after cooking, up to 30 minutes. During
this time the roast will continue to cook and the temperature
continue to rise 5 to 10 degrees, so to reach your desired temperature,
remove the roast from the oven when it registers 5 to 10 degrees
lower than desired. To let the roast rest, remove the oven and
cover loosely with foil.
cooking temperatures for meat are:
- High-heat Over
400 degrees F
- Moderate-heat 325-350
- Low-heat Sear
at 425-500 degrees F, then reduce heat to 250 degrees F
cooked temperatures for meat are:
- Rare 120-130
- Medium-rare 130-135
- Medium 140-150
- Medium-well 155-165
- Well-done 170-185
- Medium 155-165
- Well-done 180-185
a roast will ensure even cooking and give a roast a nice even
shape. Roasts that have been boned or that will not hold together
should be tied. To tie a roast, simply form the meat into a nice
shape with any loose pieces tucked in. Tie the meat with butcher
string by wrapping the string around the meat every 1-1/2 to 2
inches. When the roast is tied all the way, wrap the string around
the length of the roast and secure with a knot. Remove the string
after roasting and before carving.
are many types of beef, pork, lamb and even veal roasts. The following
are the most common cuts available today.
roast, shoulder, sirloin, rump, chuck, top round, and blade
loin, shoulder or butt, bone-in pork rack, sirloin, blade loin
or rib end, leg or ham
whole leg bone-in, butterflied leg, loin
roast, loin, shoulder, chuck, leg, top round and veal breast
you do not have any of the essential equipment suggested for this
class, you can purchase it through www.cooking.com.
roasting pan you select should be just large enough to hold the
roast. It should not be much larger or so small that the meat
touches the sides of the pan. Too large a pan will allow the juices
and drippings to burn, compromising the flavor of the roast and
ruining the flavor of any gravy you might make. Use a heavy, high-sided
roasting pan. The sides of the pan should not be higher than the
it will inhibit browning and distort the cooking time. Our choice
are roasting pans in various sizes by Caphalon.
racks are available in a V-shape or the flat variety. If you use
a rack, set it in the bottom of the roasting pan and the set the
meat directly on the rack. A rack will keep the meat off the bottom
of the pan and allow the meat to brown by letting the air circulate
evenly around the roast.
instant-read meat thermometer is necessary to get an accurate
reading of the internal temperature of your roast.
pot roasts, choose a heavy Dutch oven with a tight fitting lid.
Our choice is the Dutch oven by Caphalon.
Glutenfreeda Foods, Inc.