A substance having a sour or sharp flavor. Foods generally
referred to as "acids" include citrus juice, vinegar,
dente: To the tooth: to cook an item, such as pasta
or vegetables, until it is tender but still firm, not mushy.
Light foods served before a meal. These may be hot or cold
or served as finger food.
Plant ingredients, such as herbs and spices, used to enhance
the flavor and fragrance of food.
A powdered starch made from a tropical root. Used primarily
as a thickener. Remains clear when cooked.
A water bath used to cook foods gently by surrounding the
cooking container with simmering water.
powder: A chemical leavener made with an acidic ingredient
and an alkaline one; most commonly these are sodium bicarbonate
(baking soda) and cream of tartar. When exposed to liquid,
it produces carbon dioxide gas, which leavens doughs and
soda: Sodium bicarbonate, a leavening agent that may
be used in combination with an acidic ingredient such as
sour milk or as a component of baking powder.
A cooking method involving grilling food over a wood or
charcoal fire. Usually some sort of rub, marinade, or sauce
is brushed on the item before or during cooking.
To moisten food during cooking with pan drippings, sauce,
or other liquid. Basting prevents food from drying out.
A mixture of flour and liquid, with the inclusion of other
ingredients as needed. Batters vary in thickness but are
generally semiliquid and thinner than doughs.
A classic emulsion sauce similar to hollandaise made with
egg yolks; a reduction of white wine, shallots, and tarragon;
and butter-finished with tarragon and chervil.
A white sauce made of milk thickened with a light roux and
flavored with onion.
proof: In yeast dough production, the rising stage that
occurs after the dough is panned and just before baking.
blanc: "White butter." A classic emulsified
sauce made with a reduction of white wine and shallots thickened
with whole butter and possibly finished with fresh herbs
and other seasonings.
An ingredient used to thicken a sauce or hold together another
mixture of ingredients.
A soup based on crustaceans or a vegetable purée.
To cook an item briefly in boiling water or hot fat before
finishing or storing it.
To soften gelatin in warm liquid before use.
A cooking method in which items are immersed in liquid at
or above the boiling point (212ºF/100ºC).
A collar or shank at the point on a knife where the blade
meets the knife.
knife: A thin-bladed knife used for separating raw meat
from the bone; its blade is usually about 6 inches long
and may be flexible or rigid.
A food-borne illness caused by toxins produced by bacteria.
A hearty fish and shellfish stew flavored with saffron.
A traditional dish of France.
garni: A small bundle of herbs tied with a string. It
is used to flavor stocks, braises, and other preparations.
Usually contains bay leaf, parsley, thyme, and possibly
A cooking method in which the main item, usually meat, is
seared in fat, then simmered in stock or another liquid
in a covered pot.
A salt, water, and seasonings solution used to preserve
A cut of beef from the lower forequarter, best suited for
long-cooking preparations like braising. Corned beef is
cured beef brisket.
A cooking method in which items are cooked by a radiant
heat source placed above the food, usually in a broiler.
A flavorful, aromatic liquid made by simmering water or
stock with meat, vegetables, and/or spices and herbs.
A chef or purveyor who is responsible for butchering meats,
poultry, and occasionally fish. In the brigade system, the
butcher may also be responsible for breading meat and fish
items and other operations involving meat.
A mixture of butter, sugar, and eggs or custard; usually
used to garnish cakes or pastries.
To cut an item (usually meat or seafood) and open out the
edges like a book or the wings of a butterfly.
A dairy beverage liquid with a slightly sour flavor similar
to that of yogurt. Traditionally, the liquid by-product
of butter churning, now usually made by culturing skim milk.
A unit used to measure food energy. It is the amount of
energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water
An appetizer consisting of a small piece of bread or toast,
often cut in a decorative shape, garnished with a savory
spread or topping.
The process of browning sugar in the presence of heat. The
temperature range in which caramelization is approximately
320 to 360ºF (160 to 182ºC).
One of the basic nutrients used by the body as a source
of energy; types include simple (sugars) and complex (starches
cooking: Heat retained in cooked foods that allows them
to continue cooking even after removal from the cooking
medium. Particularly used in roasting foods.
Casing: A synthetic or natural membrane (usually
pig or sheep intestines) used to enclose sausage forcemeat.
A lidded cooking vessel that is used in the oven; usually
rounded with two handles.
dish: A metal dish with a heating unit (flame or electric)
used to keep foods warm and to cook foods at tableside or
during a buffet service.
A sparkling white wine produced in the Champagne region
A light, fine mesh gauze used for straining liquids and
knife: An all-purpose knife used for chopping, slicing,
and mincing; its blade is usually between 8 and 14 inches
leavener: An ingredient (such as baking soda or baking
powder) whose chemical action is used to produce carbon
dioxide gas to leaven baked goods.
The fruit of certain types of capsicum peppers (not related
to black pepper), used fresh, dried or smoked as a seasoning.
Chilies come in many types (for example, jalapeño,
chipotle, poblano) and varying degrees of spiciness.
powder: Dried, ground or crushed chilies, often with
other ground spices and herbs.
A sterol found exclusively in animal products such as meat,
eggs and cheese.
To cut into pieces of roughly the same size. Also a small
cut of meat including part of the rib.
a thick soup that may be made from a variety of ingredients
but usually contains potatoes.
A fish stew usually made with white wine and tomatoes, believed
to have originated in San Francisco.
The process of removing solid impurities from a liquid (such
as butter or stock). Also, a mixture of ground meat, egg
whites, mirepoix, tomato purée, herbs and spices
used to clarify broth for consommé.
butter: Butter from which the milk solids and water
have been removed, leaving pure butterfat. Has a higher
smoking point than whole butter but less better flavor.
The curdling, stiffening, or clumping of protein strands
usually due to the application of heat or acid.
chop: To cut into pieces of roughly the same size.
The pods of the cacao tree, processed to remove the cocoa
butter and ground into powder.
eggs: Eggs cooked in simmering water, in their shells
or in ramekins or coddlers, until set.
A perforated bowl, with or without a base or legs, used
to strain foods.
carbohydrate: A large molecule made up of long chains
of sugar molecules. In food, these molecules are found in
starches and fiber.
A dish of fruit fresh or dried cooked in syrup
flavored with spices or liqueur.
butter: Whole butter combined with herbs or other seasonings
and usually used to sauce grilled or broiled items or vegetables.
An aromatic mixture, such as pickles, chutney, and some
sauces and relishes, that accompanies food.
A method of heat transfer in which heat is transmitted through
(Usually duck, goose, or pork) cooked and preserved in its
Broth that has been clarified using a mixture of ground
meat, egg whites, and other ingredients that trap impurities.
oven: An oven that employs convection currents by forcing
hot air through fans so it circulates around food, cooking
it quickly and evenly.
A small, sour, pickled cucumber; gherkin.
A fine, white powder milled from dried corn; used primarily
as a thickener for sauce and occasionally as an ingredient
A thick purée, usually of vegetables but possibly
A fatty component of milk; available with various fat contents.
soup: Traditionally a soup based on a béchamel
sauce. Loosely, any soup finished with cream, a cream variant
such as sour cream, or a liaison.
anglaise: Custard sauce or vanilla sauce; "English
brulée: Custard topped with sugar and caramelized.
fraiche: Heavy cream cultured to give it a thick consistency
and a slightly tangy flavor; used in hot preparations since
it is less likely to curdle when heated than sour cream
A thin pancake made with egg batter; traditionally used
in sweet and savory preparations.
The transference of disease-causing elements from one source
to another through physical contact.
A bread or pastry garnish, usually toasted or sauteéd
A class of hard-shelled arthropods, primarily aquatic, which
includes edible species such as lobster, crab, shrimp and
To preserve a food by salting, smoking, and/or drying.
A mixture of spices used primarily in Indian cuisine; may
include turmeric, coriander, cumin, cayenne or other chilies,
cardamom, cinnamon, clove, fennel, fenugreek, ginger, and
garlic. Also, a dish seasoned with curry or curry paste.
A mixture of milk, beaten egg, and possibly other ingredients,
such as sweet or savory flavorings, which is cooked with
gentle heat, often in a bain-marie or double boiler.
A cooking method in which foods are cooked by immersion
in hot fat.
To use a liquid, such as wine, water, or stock to dissolve
food particles and/or caramelized drippings left in a pan
after roasting or sautéing.
To skim the fat off the surface of a liquid, such as a stock
To cut ingredients into small cubes (1/4 inch for small,
1/3 inch for medium, 3/4 inch for large).
heat: A method of heat transfer in which heat waves
radiate from a source (for example, an open burner or grill)
and travel directly to the item being heated with no conductor
between heat source and food. Examples are grilling, broiling,
barbecueing, and toasting.
To coat food with a dry ingredient such as flour or bread
Prepared for cooking; a dressed fish is gutted and scaled,
and its heat, tail and fins are removed (same as pan-dressed).
Dressed poultry is plucked, drawn, singed, trimmed, and
trussed. Also coated with dressing; as in salad.
sauté: To sauté without fat, usually with
a non-stick pan.
oven: A kettle, usually of cast iron, used for stewing
and braising on the stove top or in the oven.
wash: A mixture of beaten eggs (whole eggs, yolks, or
whites) and a liquid, usually milk or water, used to coat
baked goods to give them a sheen.
A mixture of two or more liquids, one of which is fat or
oil and the other of which is water-based, so that tiny
globules of one are suspended in the other. This may involve
stabilizers, such as egg or mustard. Emulsions may be temporary,
permanent, or semi-permanent.
A concentrated flavoring extracted from an item, usually
by infusion or distillation; includes items like vanilla
and other extracts and concentrated stocks.
"Smothered." A cooking method similar to braising
in which items are cooked with little or no added liquid
in a pan with a tight-fitting lid.
The butchering, cutting, and trimming of meat, poultry,
fish and game.
One of the basic nutrients used by the body to provide energy.
Fats also provide flavor and give a feeling of fullness.
Pork fat from the back of the pig.
The breakdown of carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas and
alcohol, usually through the action of yeast on sugar.
The structural component of plants that is necessary to
the human diet. Sometimes referred to as roughage.
A boneless cut of meat, fish or poultry.
Knife: A flexible-bladed knife used for filleting fish;
similar in size and shape to a boning knife.
herbes: A mixture of herbs, usually parsley, chervil,
tarragon and chives.
poacher: A long, narrow pot with straight sides and
possibly a perforated rack, used for poaching whole fish.
fish: A fish skeletal type characterized by its flat
body and both eyes on one side of its head (examples are
sole and halibut).
mill: A type of strainer with a crank-operated curved
blade. It is used to purée soft foods.
processor: A machine with interchangeable blades and
disks and a removable bowl and lid separate from the motor
A mixture of chopped or ground meat and other ingredients
used for pâtés, sausages, and other preparations.
A recipe; measurements for each ingredient may be given
as percentages of the weight for the main ingredient.
Livestock that is raised unconfined (by current definition,
a minimum pen size of 3 feet x 3 feet).
knife: see Chefs knife.
A stew, of poultry or other white meat, with a white sauce.
A filling or glaze made of heavy cream, chocolate, and/or
other flavorings. Used for truffles.
An edible decoration or accompaniment to a dish.
A protein-based substance found in animal bones and connective
tissue. When dissolved in hot liquid and then cooled, it
can be used as a thickener and stabilizer.
A small pickled cucumber; a cornichon in French.
Organs and other trim from poultry, including the liver,
heart, gizzard and neck.
To give an item a shiny surface by brushing it with sauce,
icing, or another appareil.
An elastic protein formed when hard wheat flour is moistened
and agitated. Gluten gives yeast doughs their characteristic
A heavy metal surface, which may be either fitted with handles,
built into a stove or heated by its own gas or electric
A cooking technique in which foods are cooked by a radiant
heat source placed below the food.
pan: A skillet with ridges that is used to simulate
grilling on the stove top.
A Creole soup/stew thickened with okra.
"Bean." Haricots verts are green beans.
Chopped, cooked meat, usually with potatoes and/or other
vegetables, which is seasoned, bound with a sauce, and sautéed.
A classic emulsion sauce made with a vinegar reduction,
egg yolks, and melted butter flavored with lemon juice.
Corn that has been milled or treated with a lye solution
to remove the bran and germ.
A process used to prevent the milkfat from separating out
of milk products. The liquid is forced through an ultrafine
mesh at high pressure, which breaks up fat globules, dispersing
them evenly throughout the liquid.
doeuvre: "Outside the work." An appetizer.
A technique that involves growing vegetables in nutrient-enriched
water, rather than in soil.
Steeping an aromatic or other item in liquid to extract
thermometer: A thermometer used to measure the internal
temperature of foods. The stem is inserted into the food,
producing an instant temperature read out.
Poisoning. A state of being tainted with toxins, particularly
those produced by microorganisms that have infected food.
Vegetables, potatoes, or other items cut into thin strips;
1/8-inch square x 1 to 2 inches is standard.
Juice. Meat served au jus is served with its own juice.
Buckwheat groats that have been hulled and crushed; usually
prepared by boiling.
Prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary laws.
salt: Pure, refined rock salt used for pickling because
it does not contain magnesium carbonate. It thus does not
cloud brine solutions.
Rendered pork fat used for pastry and frying.
Any ingredient or process that produces air bubbles and
causes the rising of baked goods.
The seeds of certain plants, including beans and peas, which
are eaten for their earthy flavors and high nutritional
value. Also, the French word for vegetable.
A mixture of egg yolks and cream used to thicken and enrich
A spirit flavored with fruit, spices, nuts, herbs and/or
seeds and usually sweetened.
Small, hard-shelled clams often eaten raw on the half-shell.
milk: Milk containing less than 2 percent fat.
Pasta; refers to elbow-shaped pasta.
A Portuguese fortified wine that is treated with heat as
it ages, giving it a distinctive flavor and brownish color.
A firm-fleshed Atlantic and Pacific fish with a light, delicate
flavor, suitable to all cooking methods. (Also called dolphin
fish or dorado.)
A slicing device of stainless steel with carbon steel blades.
The blades may be adjusted to cut items into various cuts
The intramuscular fat found in meat that makes the meat
tender and juicy.
An appareil used in cooking to flavor and moisten foods;
may be liquid or dry. Liquid marinades are usually based
on an acidic ingredient, such as wine or vinegar; dry marinades
are usually salt-based.
A paste of ground almonds, sugar, and egg whites that is
used to fill and decorate pastries.
A cold emulsion sauce made of oil, egg yolks, vinegar, mustard,
A small, round scallop of meat.
Egg whites beaten until they are stiff, with added sugar
or sugar syrup, used as a topping or shaped and baked until
The sum of chemical processes in living cells by which energy
is provided and new material is assimilated.
A method of heat transfer in which electromagnetic waves
generated by a device called a magnetron penetrate food
and cause the water molecules in it to oscillate. This rapid
molecular motion generates heat, which cooks the food.
A small, round, glutenless grain that is boiled or ground
The process by which grain is ground into flour or meal.
To chop into very small pieces.
A combination of chopped aromatic vegetables usually
two parts onion, one part carrot, and one part celery
used to flavor stocks, soups, braises and stews.
en place: "Put in place." The preparation
and assembly of ingredients, pans, utensils, and plates
or serving pieces needed for a particular dish or service
The dark-brown, sweet syrup that is a by-product of sugar
Any number of invertebrate animals with soft, unsegmented
bodies usually enclosed in a hard shell (examples are clams,
oysters and snails).
glutamate (MSG): A flavor-enhancer without a distinct
flavor of its own.; used primarily in Chinese, processed
foods, and prepared seasoning blends. (Warning: MSG is chocked
full of GLUTEN!)
fat: A fat with one available bonding site not filled
with a hydrogen atom. Food sources include avocados, olives
A dish made with beaten egg whites and/or whipped cream
folded into a flavored base appareil; may be sweet or savory.
potato: A small, waxy potato that is usually prepared
by boiling or steaming and is often eaten with its skin.
Hazelnut. Also, a small portion of meat cut from the rib.
spatula: A hand tool with a wide, bent blade set in
a short handle, used to turn or lift foods from grills,
broilers, or griddles.
Beaten egg that is cooked in butter in a specialized pan
or skillet and then rolled or folded into an oval. Omelets
may be filled with a variety of ingredients before or after
leavener: Yeast: A living organism operates by fermenting
sugar to produce carbon dioxide gas, causes the batter to
A Spanish dish of rice cooked with onion, tomato, garlic,
saffron, vegetables, and various meats including chicken,
chorizo and/or shellfish.
pan: A specialized pan for cooking paella; it is wide
and shallow and usually has two loop handles.
A cooking method similar to dry sautéing that simulates
broiling by cooking an item in a hot pan with little or
A cooking method in which items are cooked in deep fat in
a skillet over medium heat; this generally involves more
fat than sautéing or stir-frying but less than deep-frying.
gravy: A sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from
a roast and combining them with a roux or other starch and
Heat-resistant paper used in cooking for such preparations
as lining baking pans, cooking items and covering items
during shallow poaching. Also used to make cones for decorating.
To partially cook an item before storing or finishing by
another method; may be the same as blanching.
knife: A short knife used for paring and trimming fruits
and vegetables; its blad is usually 2 to 4 inches long.
Noodles made from a dough of flour, water, and/or eggs.
This dough is kneaded, rolled, and cut or extruded, then
cooked by boiling.
A process in which milk products are heated to kill microorganisms
that could contaminate the milk.
bag: A bag usually made of plastic, canvas, or
nylon that can be fitted with plain or decorative
tips and used to pipe out icings and puréed foods.
A rich forcemeat of meat, game, poultry, seafood, and/or
vegetables, baked in pastry or in a mold or dish.
A thick, puréed mixture of an herb, traditionally
basil, and olive oil used as a sauce for pasta and other
foods and as a garnish for soup. Pesto may also contain
grated cheese, nuts or seeds, and other seasonings.
A technique for cooking grains in which the grain is sautéed
briefly in butter, then simmered in stock or water with
A method in which items are cooked gently in simmering liquid.
fat: A fat with more than one available bonding site
not filled with a hydrogen atom. Food sources include corn,
cottonseed, safflower, soy and sunflower oils.
A fortified dessert wine. Vintage port is high-quality,
unblended wine aged in the bottle for at least 12 years;
ruby port may be blended and is aged in wood for a short
time; white port is made with white grapes.
A crustacean that closely resembles shrimp; often used as
a general term for large shrimp.
steamer: A machine that steams food by heating water
under pressure in a sealed compartment, allowing the steam
to reach higher-than-boiling temperature. The food is placed
in a sealed chamber that cannot be opened until the pressure
has released and the steam properly vented from the chamber.
To allow yeast dough to rise.
One of the basic nutrients needed by the body to maintain
life, build and repair tissues, form enzymes and hormones,
and perform other essential functions. Protein can be obtained
from animal and vegetables sources.
To process food (by mashing, straining, or chopping it very
fine) in order to make it a smooth paste. Also, a product
produced by using this technique.
heat: See Direct heat.
A small, ovenproof dish, usually ceramic.
To decrease the volume of a liquid by simmering or boiling;
used to provide a thicker consistency and/or concentrated
The product that results when a liquid is reduced.
To plunge an item into, or run under, cold water after blanching
to prevent further cooking.
To heat foods (example; bacon) in order to clarify the fat
for use in sautéing or pan-frying.
Rice that is sautéed briefly in butter with onions
and possibly other aromatics, then combined with stock,
which is added in several additions and stirred constantly,
producing a creamy texture with grains that are still al
dente; short-grain or Arborio.
A dry heat cooking method in which items are cooked in an
oven or on a spit over a fire.
Fish or shellfish eggs.
A cut of beef from the hind quarter that includes the top
and bottom round, eye, and top sirloin. It is lean and usually
braised or roasted. Also, in baking, to shape pieces of
yeast dough into balls to ensure even rising and a smooth
fish: A classification of fish based on skeletal type,
characterized by a rounded body and eyes on opposite sides
of its head.
An appareil containing equal parts of flour and fat (usually
butter) used to thicken liquids. Roux is cooked to varying
degrees (white, pale/blond, or brown), depending on its
fat: A fat whose available bonding sites are entirely
filled with hydrogen atoms. These tend to be solid at room
temperature and are primarily of animal origin. Food sources
include butter, meat, cheese, chocolate, and eggs.
A cooking method in which items are cooked quickly in a
small amount of fat in a pan on the range top.
To heat a liquid, usually milk or cream, to just below the
To measure ingredients by weighing; to divide dough or batter
into portions by weight.
A bivalve whose adductor muscle (the muscle that keeps its
shells closed) and roe are eaten. Also, a thin slice of
To cut the surface of an item at regular intervals to allow
it to cook evenly.
To brown the surface of food in fat over high heat before
finishing by another method (for example, braising) in order
to add flavor.
salt: Salt produced by evaporating sea water. Available
refined or unrefined, crystallized, or ground.
The amount of time in storage that a product can maintain
Various types of marine life consumed as food including
A container made of a perforated material, such as wire
mesh, used to drain, rice, or purée foods; also the
act of processing food through a sieve.
To maintain the temperature of a liquid just below boiling.
Also, a cooking method in which items are cooked in a simmering
carbohydrate: Any of a number of small carbohydrate
molecules (mono- and disaccharides), including fructose,
lactose, maltose, and sucrose.
To remove impurities from the surface of a liquid, such
as a stock or soup, during cooking.
milk: Milk from which all but 0.5 percent of the milkfat
has been removed.
A method for roasting foods in which items are placed on
a rack in a pan containing wood chips that smolder, emitting
smoke, when the pan is placed on the range top or in the
Any of several methods are preserving and flavoring foods
by exposing them to smoke.
point: The temperature at which a fat begins to break
To cook in a covered pan with little liquid over low heat.
An alkaline metal element necessary in small quantities
for human nutrition; one of the components of most salts
used in cooking.
A frozen dessert made with fruit juice or another flavoring,
a sweetener (usually sugar), and beaten egg whites, which
prevent the formation of large ice crystals. Sherbet is
the closest English equivalent, and it contains milk.
"Puffed." A preparation made with a sauce base
(usually béchamel for savory soufflés or pastry
cream for sweet ones), whipped egg whites, and flavorings.
The egg whites cause the soufflé to puff during cooking.
A set of stacked pots with perforations in the bottom of
each pot. They fit over a larger pot that is filled with
boiling or simmering water.
A cooking method in which items are cooked in a vapor bath
created by boiling water or other liquids.
A tool used to hone knife blades. It is usually made of
steel but may be ceramic, glass or diamond-impregnated metal.
A cooking method nearly identical to braising but generally
involving smaller pieces of meat and, hence, a shorter cooking
time. Also, a dish prepared by using the stewing method.
A cooking method similar to sautéing in which items
are cooked over very high heat, using little fat. Usually
this is done in a wok and the food is kept moving constantly.
A flavorful liquid prepared by simmering meat, poultry,
seafood, and/or vegetables in water with aromatics until
their flavor is extracted. It is used as a base for soups,
sauces, and other preparations.
A large, straight-sided pot that is taller than it is wide.
Used for making stocks and soups.
Meal or flour milled between grindstones; this method retains
more nutrients than some other grinding methods.
To cook an item, usually vegetables, in a covered pan in
a small amount of fat until it softens and releases moisture.
A liquid sweetener (maple or corn); sugar that is dissolved
in liquid, usually water, with possibly the addition of
flavoring such as spices or citrus zest.
salt: Refined, granulated rock salt. May be fortified
with iodine and treated with magnesium carbonate to prevent
A pie without a top crust; may be sweet or savory.
A small, single-serving tart.
To heat gently and gradually.
Seafood and/or vegetables that are coated with light batter
A cut of meat, usually beef or pork, from the hind quarter.
A naturally occurring poison, particularly those produced
by the metabolic activity of living organisms, such as bacteria.
To tie up meat or poultry with string before cooking it
in order to give it a compact shape for more even cooking
and better appearance.
fat: A fat with at least one available bonding site
not filled with a hydrogen atom. These may be monounsaturated
or polyunsaturated. They tend to be liquid at room temperature
and are primarily of vegetable origin.
knife: A smaller, lighter version of a chefs knife;
its blade is usually between 5 and 7 inches long.
Meat from large game animals; often used specifically to
A cold sauce of oil and vinegar, usually with various flavorings;
it is a temporary emulsion sauce. (The standard proportion
is three parts oil to one part vinegar.)
A crisp, pancake-like batter product that is cooked in a
specialized iron that gives the finished product a textured
pattern, usually a grid.
To beat an item, such as cream or egg whites, to incorporate
A round-bottomed pan, usually made of rolled steel, that
is used for nearly all cooking methods.
A large tuber that grows in tropical and subtropical climates;
it has starchy, pale-yellow flesh and is often confused
with the sweet potato.
Microscopic fungus whose metabolic processes are responsible
for fermentation. It is used for leavening bread and in
cheese, beer and wine-making.
Milk cultured with bacteria to give it a slightly thick
consistency and sour flavor.
The thin, brightly colored outer part of citrus rind. It
contains volatile oils, making it ideal for use as a flavoring.